Easter Is Not Named After Ishtar, And Other Truths I Have To Tell You

28 Mar

If there is one thing that drives me absolutely bananas, it’s people spreading misinformation via social media under the guise of “educating”. I’ve seen this happen in several ways – through infographics that twist data in ways that support a conclusion that is ultimately false, or else through “meaningful” quotes falsely attributed to various celebrities, or by cobbling together a few actual facts with statements that are patently untrue to create something that seems plausible on the surface but is, in fact, full of crap.

Yesterday, the official Facebook page of (noted misogynist and eugenics enthusiast) Richard Dawkins’ Foundation for Reason and Science shared the following image to their 637,000 fans:

Neither Reasonable Nor Scientific

Neither Reasonable Nor Scientific

Naturally, their fans lapped this shit up; after all, this is the kind of thing they absolutely live for. Religious people! Being hypocritical! And crazy! And wrong! The 2,000+ comments were chock-full of smug remarks about how naïve and stupid Christians were, accompanied by pats on the back for all the atheists who smart enough to see through all the religious bullshit and understand how the evil church had slyly appropriated all kinds of pagan traditions.

And you know what? That’s fine, I guess. I’m all for questioning religion and examining the sociological, historical and anthropological reasons that help explain the hows and whys of our lives today. I’m actually super fascinated by that kind of stuff, even if I do think that there’s a way to discuss it without making yourself sound smarter and more enlightened than the people around you.

But you guys? The image above is rife with misinformation. RIFE, I say.

Let’s start from the top:

This is Ishtar …

Okay, great. So far things are fairly accurate. The relief pictured here, known as the Burney Relief (also called the Queen of the Night relief) is widely considered to be an Ancient Babylonian representation of Ishtar (although some scholars believe that the woman depicted might be Lilitu or Ereshkigal). This relief is currently housed in the British Museum in London, but originates from southern Iraq and is nearly 4,000 years old.

… pronounced Easter.

Actually, in modern English we pronounce it the way it looks. A case could be made for pronouncing it Eesh-tar, but I have yet to come across a credible source that gives the original pronunciation as Easter.

Easter is originally the celebration of Ishtar, the Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility and sex.

Ishtar was the goddess of love, war and sex. These days, thanks to Herodotus, she is especially associated with sacred prostitution* (also known as temple prostitution), which, in the religions of the Ancient Near East, allegedly took on the form of every woman having to, at some point in her life, go to the temple of Ishtar and have sex with the first stranger who offered her money. Once a woman entered the temple of Ishtar for the purpose of sacred prostitution, she was not allowed to leave until she’d done the deed. I can’t imagine that sacred prostitution sex was ever very good sex, but hey, what do I know? Probably some people were pretty into it – I mean, if you can imagine it, someone’s made porn about it, right?

Anyway, the point I am trying to make here is that, yes, Ishtar was associated with fertility and sex. However, her symbols were the lion, the gate and the eight-pointed star; I can’t find any evidence of eggs or rabbits symbolically belonging to her. And Easter has nothing to do with her.

Most scholars believe that Easter gets its name from Eostre or Ostara**, a Germanic pagan goddess. English and German are two of the very few languages that use some variation of the word Easter (or, in German, Ostern) as a name for this holiday. Most other European languages use one form or another of the Latin name for Easter, Pascha, which is derived from the Hebrew Pesach, meaning Passover. In French it’s Pâques, in Italian it’s Pasqua, in Dutch it’s Pasen, in Danish it’s Paaske, in Bulgarian it’s Paskha, and so on and so forth.

In the Christian Bible, Jesus returned to Jerusalem from his forty days in the desert just before Passover. In fact, in the Gospel according to John, Jesus was killed on the day before the first night of Passover, at the time when lambs were traditionally slaughtered for the Passover feast (because Jesus was the Lamb of God, etc. – SYMBOLISM, Y’ALL). There are a few differing accounts of when Jesus actually died, but most Christian texts, philosophers and scholars agree that it was around the time of Passover. Easter is still celebrated the week after Passover, which is why it’s a different day each year, because the Jewish calendar is lunar rather than solar.

Her symbols (like the egg and the bunny) were and still are fertility and sex symbols (or did you actually think eggs and bunnies had anything to do with the resurrection?).

Actually, according to Jacob Grimm’s Deutsche Mythologie, which he wrote after journeying across Germany and recording its oral mythological traditions, the idea of resurrection was part and parcel of celebrating the goddess Ostara:

OstaraEástre seems therefore to have been the divinity of the radiant dawn, of upspringing light, a spectacle that brings joy and blessing, whose meaning could be easily adapted by the resurrection-day of the christian’s God. Bonfires were lighted at Easter and according to popular belief of long standing, the moment the sun rises on Easter Sunday morning, he gives three joyful leaps, he dances for joy … Water drawn on the Easter morning is, like that at Christmas, holy and healing … here also heathen notions seems to have grafted themselves on great christian festivals. Maidens clothed in white, who at Easter, at the season of returning spring, show themselves in clefts of the rock and on mountains, are suggestive of the ancient goddess.”

Spring is a sort of resurrection after all, with the land coming back to life after lying dead and bare during the winter months. To say that ancient peoples thought otherwise is foolish, naïve and downright uninformed. Many, many pagan celebrations centre around the return of light and the rebirth of the land; these ideas are not new themes in the slightest.

And yes, rabbits and eggs are fertility symbols, and they are, in fact, associated with Eostre.

Ostara by Johannes Gehrts

Ostara by Johannes Gehrts

After Constantine decided to Christianize the Empire, Easter was changed to represent Jesus.

Hey! Guess what language Constantine, the Roman Emperor, spoke? Not English, that’s for sure! In fact, when he was alive, English didn’t even exist yet. He would have spoken Latin or Ancient Greek, so would likely have referred to Easter as Pascha or Πάσχα.

But at its roots Easter (which is pronounced Ishtar) was all about celebrating fertility and sex.

Look. Here’s the thing. Our Western Easter traditions incorporate a lot of elements from a bunch of different religious backgrounds. You can’t really say that it’s just about resurrection, or just about spring, or just about fertility and sex. You can’t pick one thread out of a tapestry and say, “Hey, now this particular strand is what this tapestry’s really about.” It doesn’t work that way; very few things in life do.

The fact is that the Ancient Romans were smart when it came to conquering. In their pagan days, they would absorb gods and goddesses from every religion they encountered into their own pantheon; when the Roman Empire became Christian, the Roman Catholic Church continued to do the same thing, in a manner of speaking.

And do you know why that worked so well? Because adaptability is a really, really good trait to have in terms of survival of the fittest (something I wish the present-day Catholic Church would remember). Scratch the surface of just about any Christian holiday, and you’ll find pagan elements, if not a downright pagan theme, underneath.

Know what else? Most Christians know this. Or, at least, most of the Christians that I’m friends with (which is, admittedly, a fairly small sampling). They know that Jesus wasn’t really born on December 25th, and they know that there were never any actual snakes in Ireland, and they know that rabbits and eggs are fertility symbols. But they don’t care, because they realize that religions evolve and change and that that’s actually a good thing, not a bad thing. The fact that many Christian saints are just re-imagined pagan gods and goddesses doesn’t alter their faith one iota; because faith isn’t about reason or sense, it’s about belief.

Look, go ahead and debate religion. Go ahead and tell Christians why what they believe is wrong. That’s totally fine and, in fact, I encourage it. A little debate and critical thinking are good for everyone. But do it intelligently. Get to know the Bible, so you actually know what you’re disagreeing with when you form an argument. Brush up on your theology so that you can explain why it’s so wrong. And have some compassion, for Christ’s sake – be polite and respectful when you enter into a debate, even when the person you’re debating with loses their cool. You want to prove that you’re better, more enlightened than Christians? Great, do it by remaining rational and level-headed in the face of someone who’s willing to stoop to personal attacks. To behave otherwise is to be just as bad as the people you’re debating.

Anyway, I hope you guys have a fantastic long weekend, no matter how you spend it. If your holiday involves chocolate, then I hope you enjoy that. If not, just enjoy the extra day or two off work and the (hopefully) warm weather. No matter what you believe in, I think that we can all agree that the end of winter and the rebirth of spring is worth celebrating.

And also? Richard Dawkins? You need to fact-check yourself before you fact-wreck yourself. Spreading this kind of misinformation to your foundation’s 637,000 fans is just plain irresponsible, especially coming from someone like you. Get with the program, buddy.

ETA: The post now seems to be removed from The Richard Dawkins’ Foundation for Science and Reason’s FB page. Thanks Richard! 

ETA Part Deux: Oh. It looks like it was deleted from their timeline but not the photo album. Welp.

*It should be noted that the only actual historical evidence that we have of sacred prostitution comes from Herodotus (I’ve included an excerpt from Herodotus’ Histories below) and no one is really sure how accurate it is. Herodotus is known for making shit up, like giant ants for example. But it makes for an amazing story and people still make the association between Ishtar and sacred prostitution, so I decided to mention it here.

The foulest Babylonian custom is that which compels every woman of the land to sit in the temple of Aphrodite and have intercourse with some stranger once in her life. Many women who are rich and proud and disdain to mingle with the rest, drive to the temple in covered carriages drawn by teams, and stand there with a great retinue of attendants. But most sit down in the sacred plot of Aphrodite, with crowns of cord on their heads; there is a great multitude of women coming and going; passages marked by line run every way through the crowd, by which the men pass and make their choice. Once a woman has taken her place there, she does not go away to her home before some stranger has cast money into her lap, and had intercourse with her outside the temple; but while he casts the money, he must say, “I invite you in the name of Mylitta” (that is the Assyrian name for Aphrodite). It does not matter what sum the money is; the woman will never refuse, for that would be a sin, the money being by this act made sacred. So she follows the first man who casts it and rejects no one. After their intercourse, having discharged her sacred duty to the goddess, she goes away to her home; and thereafter there is no bribe however great that will get her. So then the women that are fair and tall are soon free to depart, but the uncomely have long to wait because they cannot fulfil the law; for some of them remain for three years, or four. There is a custom like this in some parts of Cyprus.

That crack about ugly women was totally unnecessary, Herodotus. I am just saying.

**The first written reference we have for Eostre dates back to the 7th century AD and can be found in Venerable Bede’s Temporum Ratione, in a passage explaining that April was often referred to as Eostremonth:

“Eosturmonath” has a name which is now translated “Paschal month”, and which was once called after a goddess of theirs named Eostre, in whose honor feasts were celebrated in that month.

Jacob Grimm said that he found further evidence of Eostre and her associations with Easter, eggs and rabbits when researching his Deutsches Mythologie, although he was unable to discover any written records about her.

674 Responses to “Easter Is Not Named After Ishtar, And Other Truths I Have To Tell You”

  1. galacticactivation April 20, 2014 at 6:16 pm #

    “An egg of wondrous size is said to have fallen from heaven into the river Euphrates. The fishes rolled it to the bank, where the doves having settled upon it, and hatched it, out came Venus, who afterwards was called the Syrian goddess ” http:// books.google.com/books? id=GooEAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA156& lpg=PA156&dq=Astarte+egg&sourc e=bl&ots=8-uPcioIo2&sig=-ebKfd-Teir58_haaVXhD8jFIYI&hl=en&sa =X&ei=7PdTU6qAFIqwyAS98IHYCw&v ed=0CCQQ6AEwCw First egg connection I saw was in reading out the babylonian starmap.. the website is diffrent now though.. but look into the babylonian pisces constellation.. egg!!

  2. thethinkinglady April 20, 2014 at 6:34 pm #

    Reblogged this on Red Scripts and commented:
    So good!

  3. betterfailling April 20, 2014 at 7:12 pm #

    Reblogged this on nicichiarasa.

  4. Justin Boden April 20, 2014 at 7:27 pm #

    In fairness to Aristotle, he didn’t make up the giant ants. He just confused them for marmosets (unless you’re just unconvinced by the argument: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold-digging_ant).

  5. Christie April 20, 2014 at 7:32 pm #

    “The fact that many Christian saints are just re-imagined pagan gods and goddesses” – say whatnow? I’m pretty sure this was rectified in the 1960′s with the large decanonization which is associated with Vatican II (though was not really a part of Vatican II). You were doing SO WELL here… what happened?

  6. Ash April 20, 2014 at 8:25 pm #

    That relief pictured I have always associated with Ereshkigal, I am a pagan but this has always annoyed me. Ostara/Eostre has nothing to do with Ishtar or Lilith for that matter. Ishtar has nothing to do with Easter, your Ostara reference is correct. Even with Christian and Jewish mythos being incorporated, I’m glad someone posted this.

  7. Lisa April 20, 2014 at 8:30 pm #

    Thank your for your article. I too saw that image posted around Fbook and it got my goat too. With regards to Easter though there are a few things I’d like to add. There are a number of questions one should ask about the relationship with so called ‘Eostra’. Firstly is the Venerable Bede’s piece of writing you quote a reliable historical statement? The Venerable Bede spent much of his time trying to promote Christian conversion amongst the various people in Britain at that time and his writing can clearly be seen to have an agenda with regards to his reportage of ‘heathen’s. Also, if this was as commonplace (even though he does say it has died out by his time of writing) as he states why are there absolutely no references to it in ANY literature ANYWHERE in ANYTHING before or since? There also seem to be no references in any art or sculpture in or any archaeological artefacts. Doesn’t that seem odd? Actually in your article you say this is the first reference to Eostra… in fact this is the ONLY written reference. In other words, apart from this highly questionable source there are no references to Eostra relating to Easter anywhere thus far. If there is any other EVIDENCE that our ancestors spent most of April in deference to eggs, rabbits and goddesses of which there’s no evidence of, I’m all eyes and ears but I really do wish people would question their sources and particularly if it turns up on the flippin’ web. I have no bones with myth making or with people who chose to worship or channel gods or goddesses and their attributes in all their wonderful mythological forms but I don’t like the re-writing of history. History needs evidence. Not perfect but its all we have.

  8. Capt. Jonathan Akerman-Livingstone April 20, 2014 at 8:40 pm #

    I think you need to do better research.
    The language you speak originated in India (Sanskrit) and came to Europe via Iran and Iraq. Along with that language came culture and religion.
    If you search, you will find images of relief carvings/statues of Ishtar next to a rabbit.
    Of course, the early Germanic peoples did not use the word Ishtar – the French word “Chemise” is not identical to the Punjabi word “Kamise,” but they BOTH mean shirt.
    I think you are of the school that believes that ‘civilisation’ came to Europe via the Roman Empire and before that most Northern Europeans were walking around in animal skins, wielding clubs and living in caves. Where I live in Great Britain, we know that Joseph of Arimathea (Yeshua Ben David/Jesus’ uncle on his mother’s side), a trader in lead and tin came here to purchase lead and that our lead was found in Pompeii! That was BEFORE Britain was invaded by Rome!
    Like it or not, the early Germanic peoples (and you) owe a lot to the spread of language, culture and religion from the Middle East and you have to bear in mind that it changed as it moved!

    • Aoton April 20, 2014 at 11:40 pm #

      Indo-European languages did not come from India or Sanskrit, they came from somewhere around Ukraine. The “out of India” theory is one that Indians came up with (and one only Indian linguists/historians support, no other actual historians/linguists outside India has ever supported the notion) for a number of reasons. 1, They think, based on their religion, that every bit of humanity and civilization came from India. 2, They also think anything other than “out of India” is meant to show how the British are superior, which it is not (which is ridiculous anyway, since the British linguists that discovered the interrelationships never claimed an “out of Britain” or even “out of western Europe.”). 3, They also think the idea that their language coming from outside India was meant to undermine their identity or sovereignty, so they will never accept it (except South Indians, who speak Dravidian languages and have always known that Sanskrit/Pakrit speakers came from somewhere else originally).

      Also your “chemise” example is not a good one. It did not come from India to Europe, it came from Latin and was introduced to India recently by the Portuguese (who speak a language descended from Latin). The native Indian word for shirt is kurta.

      • moonwolf23 April 21, 2014 at 1:36 am #

        Thank you.

  9. Nina April 20, 2014 at 9:10 pm #

    Easter is not tied to the Jewish calendar. Look at the Wikipedia page. It’s lunar based so it coincidentally falls around passover, but it’s also based on civil calendars.

  10. georgena blything April 20, 2014 at 10:14 pm #

    Great info as a witch I new some if the info thank you

    • moonwolf23 April 21, 2014 at 1:38 am #

      Dude find some academic sources.

  11. Mystére April 20, 2014 at 10:58 pm #

    Eh, there’s one problem I have with this posting: there’s no concrete evidence (nor any strong evidence at all) that Eostre was a Goddess. It’s – as far as I’ve been able to find in the linguistic research – mostly the old Germanic word for spring and the Vernal Equinox, with its original Old High German meaning being “to shine.” It was a big festival which the Christian missionaries adapted to the practice of celebrating Easter (which was the first Christian holiday unique to the faith, not carried over from Judaism) because they could not eradicate the animistic practice. (Shockingly, Wikipedia was a great source for this. It’s heavily cited from various historical and linguistic sources.)

  12. cyanidecupcake April 20, 2014 at 11:19 pm #

    Reblogged this on Your god is a fraud.

  13. Wilfrido Heemstadt April 21, 2014 at 12:47 am #

    Am from Aruba. And for easter people party and walk half naked on the beach.For me this fertility and sex thing, makes a lot of sense. Some pick up story the Christians take up just like osiris and the resurrection with jesus and the resurrection. This is one messed up world when it comes to history.

  14. Bradley St Patrick Abeyta April 21, 2014 at 12:51 am #

    Here is the other parts you missed.

    Ishtar, (Semiramis, widow of Nimrod, mother of Tammuz) came to be represented as the bare breasted pagan fertility goddess of the east. The original pagan festival of “Easter” was a sex orgy that celebrated the return of life via the fertility of Ishtar’s conception of Tammuz. Worshipers of the Babylonian religion celebrated the conception of Tammuz on the first Sunday after the Full Moon that followed the Spring Equinox. They celebrated it by baking cakes to Ishtar, getting drunk, engaging in sex orgies and prostitution in the temple of Ishtar. Women were required to celebrate the conception of Tammuz by lying down in the temple and having sex with whoever entered. The man was required to leave her money. Babies were sacrificed in the honor of these pagan gods and their blood was consumed by the worshipers. The priest of Easter would sacrifice infants (human babies) and take the eggs of Easter/Ishtar, as symbols of fertility, and die them in the blood of the sacrificed infants (human babies). The Easter eggs would hatch on December 25th (nine months later), the same day her son Tammuz the reincarnate sun-god would be born.

    This is where the practice of coloring “easter eggs” came from. Many babies would be born around Dec 25 from the sex orgies that began on the feast of Ishtar in the Spring and many of these babies would be sacrificed the following Easter/Ishtar feast .

  15. me me April 21, 2014 at 12:53 am #

    Could someone tell me what bunnys and eggs have to do with the resurrection, please??

  16. Kate April 21, 2014 at 1:44 am #

    Thank you!

  17. P April 21, 2014 at 2:14 am #

    Hello, I’m wondering if you could point me to the academic literature that supports your stance. I’d like to find out more before obviously forming any position.

  18. jogriffithyoga April 21, 2014 at 2:28 am #

    Reblogged this on Learning.

  19. santalorena April 21, 2014 at 3:05 am #

    I’m really disappointed in each and every one of you. All of this academic posturing and theological/sociological gobbledygook, and not once has the 1987 Warren Beatty/Dustin Hoffman debacle that was Ishtar been mentioned. Now, please accept my challenge and work this infamous box office flop into the conversation in a subversive, poignant, or sarcastic way. And…go.

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