Easter Is Not Named After Ishtar, And Other Truths I Have To Tell You

28 Mar

If there is one thing that drives me absolutely bananas, it’s people spreading misinformation via social media under the guise of “educating”. I’ve seen this happen in several ways – through infographics that twist data in ways that support a conclusion that is ultimately false, or else through “meaningful” quotes falsely attributed to various celebrities, or by cobbling together a few actual facts with statements that are patently untrue to create something that seems plausible on the surface but is, in fact, full of crap.

Yesterday, the official Facebook page of (noted misogynist and eugenics enthusiast) Richard Dawkins’ Foundation for Reason and Science shared the following image to their 637,000 fans:

Neither Reasonable Nor Scientific

Neither Reasonable Nor Scientific

Naturally, their fans lapped this shit up; after all, this is the kind of thing they absolutely live for. Religious people! Being hypocritical! And crazy! And wrong! The 2,000+ comments were chock-full of smug remarks about how naïve and stupid Christians were, accompanied by pats on the back for all the atheists who smart enough to see through all the religious bullshit and understand how the evil church had slyly appropriated all kinds of pagan traditions.

And you know what? That’s fine, I guess. I’m all for questioning religion and examining the sociological, historical and anthropological reasons that help explain the hows and whys of our lives today. I’m actually super fascinated by that kind of stuff, even if I do think that there’s a way to discuss it without making yourself sound smarter and more enlightened than the people around you.

But you guys? The image above is rife with misinformation. RIFE, I say.

Let’s start from the top:

This is Ishtar …

Okay, great. So far things are fairly accurate. The relief pictured here, known as the Burney Relief (also called the Queen of the Night relief) is widely considered to be an Ancient Babylonian representation of Ishtar (although some scholars believe that the woman depicted might be Lilitu or Ereshkigal). This relief is currently housed in the British Museum in London, but originates from southern Iraq and is nearly 4,000 years old.

… pronounced Easter.

Actually, in modern English we pronounce it the way it looks. A case could be made for pronouncing it Eesh-tar, but I have yet to come across a credible source that gives the original pronunciation as Easter.

Easter is originally the celebration of Ishtar, the Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility and sex.

Ishtar was the goddess of love, war and sex. These days, thanks to Herodotus, she is especially associated with sacred prostitution* (also known as temple prostitution), which, in the religions of the Ancient Near East, allegedly took on the form of every woman having to, at some point in her life, go to the temple of Ishtar and have sex with the first stranger who offered her money. Once a woman entered the temple of Ishtar for the purpose of sacred prostitution, she was not allowed to leave until she’d done the deed. I can’t imagine that sacred prostitution sex was ever very good sex, but hey, what do I know? Probably some people were pretty into it – I mean, if you can imagine it, someone’s made porn about it, right?

Anyway, the point I am trying to make here is that, yes, Ishtar was associated with fertility and sex. However, her symbols were the lion, the gate and the eight-pointed star; I can’t find any evidence of eggs or rabbits symbolically belonging to her. And Easter has nothing to do with her.

Most scholars believe that Easter gets its name from Eostre or Ostara**, a Germanic pagan goddess. English and German are two of the very few languages that use some variation of the word Easter (or, in German, Ostern) as a name for this holiday. Most other European languages use one form or another of the Latin name for Easter, Pascha, which is derived from the Hebrew Pesach, meaning Passover. In French it’s Pâques, in Italian it’s Pasqua, in Dutch it’s Pasen, in Danish it’s Paaske, in Bulgarian it’s Paskha, and so on and so forth.

In the Christian Bible, Jesus returned to Jerusalem from his forty days in the desert just before Passover. In fact, in the Gospel according to John, Jesus was killed on the day before the first night of Passover, at the time when lambs were traditionally slaughtered for the Passover feast (because Jesus was the Lamb of God, etc. – SYMBOLISM, Y’ALL). There are a few differing accounts of when Jesus actually died, but most Christian texts, philosophers and scholars agree that it was around the time of Passover. Easter is still celebrated the week after Passover, which is why it’s a different day each year, because the Jewish calendar is lunar rather than solar.

Her symbols (like the egg and the bunny) were and still are fertility and sex symbols (or did you actually think eggs and bunnies had anything to do with the resurrection?).

Actually, according to Jacob Grimm’s Deutsche Mythologie, which he wrote after journeying across Germany and recording its oral mythological traditions, the idea of resurrection was part and parcel of celebrating the goddess Ostara:

OstaraEástre seems therefore to have been the divinity of the radiant dawn, of upspringing light, a spectacle that brings joy and blessing, whose meaning could be easily adapted by the resurrection-day of the christian’s God. Bonfires were lighted at Easter and according to popular belief of long standing, the moment the sun rises on Easter Sunday morning, he gives three joyful leaps, he dances for joy … Water drawn on the Easter morning is, like that at Christmas, holy and healing … here also heathen notions seems to have grafted themselves on great christian festivals. Maidens clothed in white, who at Easter, at the season of returning spring, show themselves in clefts of the rock and on mountains, are suggestive of the ancient goddess.”

Spring is a sort of resurrection after all, with the land coming back to life after lying dead and bare during the winter months. To say that ancient peoples thought otherwise is foolish, naïve and downright uninformed. Many, many pagan celebrations centre around the return of light and the rebirth of the land; these ideas are not new themes in the slightest.

And yes, rabbits and eggs are fertility symbols, and they are, in fact, associated with Eostre.

Ostara by Johannes Gehrts

Ostara by Johannes Gehrts

After Constantine decided to Christianize the Empire, Easter was changed to represent Jesus.

Hey! Guess what language Constantine, the Roman Emperor, spoke? Not English, that’s for sure! In fact, when he was alive, English didn’t even exist yet. He would have spoken Latin or Ancient Greek, so would likely have referred to Easter as Pascha or Πάσχα.

But at its roots Easter (which is pronounced Ishtar) was all about celebrating fertility and sex.

Look. Here’s the thing. Our Western Easter traditions incorporate a lot of elements from a bunch of different religious backgrounds. You can’t really say that it’s just about resurrection, or just about spring, or just about fertility and sex. You can’t pick one thread out of a tapestry and say, “Hey, now this particular strand is what this tapestry’s really about.” It doesn’t work that way; very few things in life do.

The fact is that the Ancient Romans were smart when it came to conquering. In their pagan days, they would absorb gods and goddesses from every religion they encountered into their own pantheon; when the Roman Empire became Christian, the Roman Catholic Church continued to do the same thing, in a manner of speaking.

And do you know why that worked so well? Because adaptability is a really, really good trait to have in terms of survival of the fittest (something I wish the present-day Catholic Church would remember). Scratch the surface of just about any Christian holiday, and you’ll find pagan elements, if not a downright pagan theme, underneath.

Know what else? Most Christians know this. Or, at least, most of the Christians that I’m friends with (which is, admittedly, a fairly small sampling). They know that Jesus wasn’t really born on December 25th, and they know that there were never any actual snakes in Ireland, and they know that rabbits and eggs are fertility symbols. But they don’t care, because they realize that religions evolve and change and that that’s actually a good thing, not a bad thing. The fact that many Christian saints are just re-imagined pagan gods and goddesses doesn’t alter their faith one iota; because faith isn’t about reason or sense, it’s about belief.

Look, go ahead and debate religion. Go ahead and tell Christians why what they believe is wrong. That’s totally fine and, in fact, I encourage it. A little debate and critical thinking are good for everyone. But do it intelligently. Get to know the Bible, so you actually know what you’re disagreeing with when you form an argument. Brush up on your theology so that you can explain why it’s so wrong. And have some compassion, for Christ’s sake – be polite and respectful when you enter into a debate, even when the person you’re debating with loses their cool. You want to prove that you’re better, more enlightened than Christians? Great, do it by remaining rational and level-headed in the face of someone who’s willing to stoop to personal attacks. To behave otherwise is to be just as bad as the people you’re debating.

Anyway, I hope you guys have a fantastic long weekend, no matter how you spend it. If your holiday involves chocolate, then I hope you enjoy that. If not, just enjoy the extra day or two off work and the (hopefully) warm weather. No matter what you believe in, I think that we can all agree that the end of winter and the rebirth of spring is worth celebrating.

And also? Richard Dawkins? You need to fact-check yourself before you fact-wreck yourself. Spreading this kind of misinformation to your foundation’s 637,000 fans is just plain irresponsible, especially coming from someone like you. Get with the program, buddy.

ETA: The post now seems to be removed from The Richard Dawkins’ Foundation for Science and Reason’s FB page. Thanks Richard! 

ETA Part Deux: Oh. It looks like it was deleted from their timeline but not the photo album. Welp.

*It should be noted that the only actual historical evidence that we have of sacred prostitution comes from Herodotus (I’ve included an excerpt from Herodotus’ Histories below) and no one is really sure how accurate it is. Herodotus is known for making shit up, like giant ants for example. But it makes for an amazing story and people still make the association between Ishtar and sacred prostitution, so I decided to mention it here.

The foulest Babylonian custom is that which compels every woman of the land to sit in the temple of Aphrodite and have intercourse with some stranger once in her life. Many women who are rich and proud and disdain to mingle with the rest, drive to the temple in covered carriages drawn by teams, and stand there with a great retinue of attendants. But most sit down in the sacred plot of Aphrodite, with crowns of cord on their heads; there is a great multitude of women coming and going; passages marked by line run every way through the crowd, by which the men pass and make their choice. Once a woman has taken her place there, she does not go away to her home before some stranger has cast money into her lap, and had intercourse with her outside the temple; but while he casts the money, he must say, “I invite you in the name of Mylitta” (that is the Assyrian name for Aphrodite). It does not matter what sum the money is; the woman will never refuse, for that would be a sin, the money being by this act made sacred. So she follows the first man who casts it and rejects no one. After their intercourse, having discharged her sacred duty to the goddess, she goes away to her home; and thereafter there is no bribe however great that will get her. So then the women that are fair and tall are soon free to depart, but the uncomely have long to wait because they cannot fulfil the law; for some of them remain for three years, or four. There is a custom like this in some parts of Cyprus.

That crack about ugly women was totally unnecessary, Herodotus. I am just saying.

**The first written reference we have for Eostre dates back to the 7th century AD and can be found in Venerable Bede’s Temporum Ratione, in a passage explaining that April was often referred to as Eostremonth:

“Eosturmonath” has a name which is now translated “Paschal month”, and which was once called after a goddess of theirs named Eostre, in whose honor feasts were celebrated in that month.

Jacob Grimm said that he found further evidence of Eostre and her associations with Easter, eggs and rabbits when researching his Deutsches Mythologie, although he was unable to discover any written records about her.

901 Responses to “Easter Is Not Named After Ishtar, And Other Truths I Have To Tell You”

  1. Zoltan April 7, 2015 at 1:06 pm #

    Whatever the case, it is a pagan celebration which has nothing to do with Jesus, Christians and the Bible – see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter#Non-observing_Christian_groups. In fact, the only observance that Jesus commanded his followers to do is the remembrance of his *death* and NOT his resurrection. The reason: it is by his death which earned us the prospect of forgiveness, and NOT his resurrection. See 1 Co 11:26 – “…keep proclaiming the death of the Lord…”. So does it really matter whether a pagan festival is named or not after another pagan deity in the context of Christianity? Not at all. The fact that Easter is named after Eostre and not after Ishtar doesn’t make it any less pagan.

  2. ash April 7, 2015 at 8:31 pm #

    ye shure he wore a wooden ccane he walked the talkie

  3. Leigh de Paor April 9, 2015 at 9:00 am #

    The origins of the word “easter” can be easily checked online http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Easter

    The sources for the claims of the word Easter being in limited English use are also easily checked with most translations of the Bible having a variant of Passover. The Geneva bible (1599) has “passover”, Luthers’ 1545 translation uses “Ostern”, Tyndale (1525-1530) has “ester”, the Latin Vulgate (405) has “pascha”.

    Although I don’t agree with all of the assumptions the author has made in this article I have to admit that it is, overall, a well balanced and fair article.

    To many of the strange objections of “stealing” traditions here: Nowhere in the Bible does it say eating chocolate or eggs is a sin so that does not exclude Christians from doing that. Christianity does not prescribe your culture or cultural practices except where those things are clearly sinful and ungodly.

    There’s an awful lot of adhominem being flung about here. Also many people are making hasty generalisations (or generalizations if you are a pedant about US/UK spelling), not to mention the pedantry!! Sadly it does not contribute to the discussion but detracts.

    If someone mispells or mistypes a word, one who harps on about that like a school yard bully displays their lack of intellect and capability to understand the information at hand. Or more likely it is that they understood, but the lack of character leads that person to latch onto a pedantic error and become a troll.

  4. Chris April 9, 2015 at 12:43 pm #

    “In reality, the ancient world abounded with traditions, prophecies, fables and myths of miraculous conceptions and births, long before the Christian era, and the virgin-mother motif is common enough in pre-Christian cultures to demonstrate its unoriginality and non-historicity within Christianity. In early Christian times, Mary herself was believed to have been born of a virgin, which, if taken literally, would represent a virgin birth prior to Christ, rendering his own nativity unoriginal and mundane, rather than miraculous and divine. One source of Mary’s immaculate conception was Christian writer and Saint, John of Damascus, who asserted that Mary’s parents were “filled and purified by the Holy Ghost, and freed from sexual concupiscence.” Concerning this matter, the Catholic Encyclopedia (“Immaculate Conception”) states that “even the human element” of Mary’s origin, “the material of which she was formed, was pure and holy.” In other words, Roman Catholic doctrine dictates that, like Jesus, “the Blessed Virgin Mary” was “conceived without sin.” (Hackwood, 17) In order to maintain the “uniqueness” of Christ’s virgin birth, however, this contention regarding Mary is not taken seriously. What it proves, nonetheless, is that fabulous Christian claims are based on pious speculation, not historical fact, speculation by the faithful that changes from era to era, depending on the need.

    As it turns out, if true, the Virgin Mary is, like Jesus Christ, a mythical character, founded upon older goddesses. Following on the heels of goddesses such as Aphrodite, Astarte, Cybele, Demeter, Hathor, Inanna, Ishtar and Isis, Mary is “both virgin and mother, and, like many of them, she gives birth to a half-human, half-divine child, who dies and is reborn.”

    Regarding the Great Mother Goddess, upon whom Mary is based and whose names are legion, in Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity, Francis Legge says:
    “Her most prominent characteristics show her to be a personification of the Earth, the mother of all living, ever bringing forth and ever a virgin…”

    In other words, even Mary is just another name for Ishtar…

    • zarove May 13, 2015 at 2:29 am #

      The only problem is, Virgin born Saviours were rare, not commonplace. In fact, I oubt you could name one.

  5. Joseph Pierce April 17, 2015 at 1:00 am #

    I’m a bit late on the Easter hoopla, but I’ll interject anyway.

    I’m not sure why you work so hard to deconstruct a meme here. Your post does more to add* to it than detract.

    Ishtar as the goddess of love, war and sex is perfectly compatible as the goddess behind the Easter holiday. As you point out, these god(ddess) archetypes evolve over time to suit cultural narratives.

    So if you allow for cultural innovation, why go to such great lengths to harp on a meme which really is not meant to communicate much detail. This is a soundbite culture, so you can expect ignorance through lack of detail. That’s the way marketing works.

  6. Philip September 11, 2015 at 8:21 pm #

    If you study the etymology, you will find that ‘Easter’ does have a historical linguistic connection to ‘Astaroth’, a word for a pagan idol of which ‘Ishtar’ is also a cognate. It is clearly scientific when you study the etymology and phonological conditioning processes of loan-words. Just like ‘Jesus’ and ‘Isa’ are cognates of ‘Yehshua’. Furthermore, the Easter celebration is not Biblical. It is nowhere to be found in the Bible and it is also inaccurate in terms of the exact timing of the crucifixion, death and resurrection. Christians should be celebrating Passover because it is all about Jesus’ sacrifice and resurrection. Here is a short movie that demonstrates the significance of Passover and its direct prophetic relationship with Jesus: https://youtu.be/7iGJeOqfvO4

    • Philip September 11, 2015 at 8:44 pm #

      Also, one should understand some historical linguistic terminology and what type of change they refer to in order to better realize how words can gain or lose sounds between languages: syncope, apocope, metathesis, prothesis, epenthesis/anaptyxis, excrescence, apheresis, fusion, vowel breaking, unpacking/fission, assimilation and dissimilation. I know all these words may seem daunting and tiresome, but their definitions are very simple to understand. There are more types of changes and linguistic terms labeling them, but these are the basics. If you want to learn more and see what I’m talking about, here’s a free PDF book for an introduction to Historical Linguistics: http://faculty.mu.edu.sa/public/uploads/1424720340.6709%5BLyle_Campbell%5D_Historical_Linguistics._An_Introdu%28BookZZ.org%29.pdf

    • Jeff Charest September 12, 2015 at 3:57 am #

      It can only be considered to have a true etymological connection if you can demonstrate how it got from a Phoenician goddess to a northern European Christian holiday. Christians do, sort of, celebrate Passover–what we Anglos call ‘Easter’ is called some variant of the Hebrew Pesach in virtually every other part of Christiandom outside of English and Germanic speaking lands. It started being called after Pesach and cognates of it in the lands where Astaroth was also worshipped. So you’ll have a hard time showing an actual causal connection between Easter, which was used for the first time only in the early 16th century for the holiday, in Wycliffe’s Bible translation, and Ashtaroth or any other Mesopotamian goddess, since all their names and their worship had died out long before and their lands are separated by the “Easter” using zone by a thousand miles. Sure, we could play games with vowel shifts etc all according to linguistic rules all day long. We could show that any word in one language that sounds vaguely like a word in another language has an etymological connection. But unless you can show HOW it happened historically you don’t have a case. With all those peach-using Christians in the way, you don’t have a case.

      • ralfellis September 22, 2015 at 2:46 pm #

        I don’t think you have to look too hard to see the connection.

        Isis was called Ast or Est in the Egyptian, and she was one of the most widely venerated goddesses in the Roman pantheon. It would seem obvious and likely that the Germanic fertility goddess called Eostre was derived from the Egyptian Ast or Est, because they were both fertility goddesses (Isis also became teh Greek Aphrodite).

        The Germanic for April was Ostermonat, the month of Oster, the goddess Eostre. And the springtime festival of Oster was also named after the goddess Eostre. And the brothers Grimm traced the name Ostermonat back to the 8th century. And it was from Oster or Eostre that the English Easter was derived.

        Ergo, ‘Easter’ was derived from Ast, Est or Isis.


  1. I Went to Church and I Liked It | Under Two Trees - April 7, 2015

    […] Ishtar-is-not-Easter […]

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